under

under
un|der
W1S1 [ˈʌndə US -ər] prep, adv
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1¦(below)¦
2¦(less than)¦
3¦(having something done to it)¦
4¦(affected by something)¦
5 under ... conditions/circumstances
6¦(law/agreement)¦
7¦(in power)¦
8¦(position at work)¦
9¦(where information is)¦
10¦(different name)¦
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[: Old English;]
1.) ¦(BELOW)¦
below or at a lower level than something, or covered by something
≠ ↑over
Wendy had hidden the box under her bed.
We sailed under the Golden Gate Bridge.
Write your name under your picture.
I could see something glittering under the water.
He was wearing a jacket under his coat.
Under her arm, she carried a large portfolio.
In summer, we often slept under the stars.
I'd scare my mom by diving in and staying under (=staying under the water) for as long as I could.
The bench collapsed under the weight of (=unable to support the weight of) so many people.
2.) ¦(LESS THAN)¦
less than a particular number, amount, age, or price
≠ ↑over
These toys are not suitable for children under five.
Most of the events listed cost under £60.
I spend just under four hours a day seeing customers.
and/or under
Children aged twelve or under must be accompanied by an adult.
be under age
(=be too young to legally drink, have sex etc)
3.) ¦(HAVING SOMETHING DONE TO IT)¦
used to say what is being done to something or how it is being dealt with
under discussion/consideration/review etc
The possibility of employing more staff is still under discussion (=being discussed, considered etc) .
All categories of expenditure are under review.
Four new power stations are currently under construction.
The port was coming under attack from enemy warships.
4.) ¦(AFFECTED BY SOMETHING)¦
affected by a particular condition, influence, or situation
She's been under a lot of pressure at work.
under the influence of alcohol/drink/drugs etc
He was accused of driving while under the influence of alcohol.
The operation was carried out while she was under general anaesthetic.
I'm glad to see that you have everything under control .
Two of our national parks are currently under threat from road schemes.
The doctor injected something into my arm and I immediately felt myself going under (=becoming unconscious) .
5.) under ... conditions/circumstances
if something happens under particular conditions, it happens when those conditions exist
I wish I'd met him under different circumstances.
The system operates well under normal conditions.
6.) ¦(LAW/AGREEMENT)¦
according to a particular agreement, law etc
the question of whether the trade is illegal under international law
Under the terms of the agreement, the debt will be repaid over a 20-year period.
7.) ¦(IN POWER)¦
if something happens under a particular leader, government etc, it happens when they are in power
a program initiated under President Clinton and continued under President Bush
Under her leadership, the magazine's circulation doubled in less than a year.
Would it have been different under a Labour government?
8.) ¦(POSITION AT WORK)¦
if you work under someone, they have a higher position in the company, organization etc than you, and they help to direct your work
She had a total staff of 10 working under her.
From 1847 to 1851 he served under Captain John Randolph Stokes.
At Cambridge he studied under (=was a student of) F.R. Leavis.
9.) ¦(WHERE INFORMATION IS)¦
used to say in which part of a book, list, or system particular information can be found
be/be filed/be listed etc under
The baby's records are filed under the mother's last name.
10.)¦(DIFFERENT NAME)¦
if you write or do something under a particular name, you do it using that name instead of your real name
He made a few records under the name of Joe Ritchie.
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WORD CHOICE: under, underneath, below, beneath
Under is the usual way to say that one thing is at a lower level than another, or is covered by it : Your shoes are under the table. |He lay under a blanket.
Under is nearly always used as a preposition (followed by a noun).
Underneath has a similar meaning to under , and is used especially when something is hidden or covered : a box underneath the floorboards
It can also be used as an adverb : She lifted the cover and peeped underneath.
Below is used when one thing is at a much lower level than another, and can be a preposition or an adverb : the apartment below ours |Mist lay in the valley below.
Beneath can be used in the same ways as under and below , but is a more literary or formal word : beneath the silvery moon | the cliff, and the ocean beneath
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Dictionary of contemporary English. 2013.

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  • Under — Un der, prep. [AS. under, prep. & adv.; akin to OFries. under, OS. undar, D. onder, G. unter, OHG. untar, Icel. undir, Sw. & Dan. under, Goth. undar, L. infra below, inferior lower, Skr. adhas below. [root]201. Cf. {Inferior}.] 1. Below or lower …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • under — [un′dər] prep. [ME < OE, akin to Ger unter < IE * ṇdhos, *ṇdheri, under > L infra, below] 1. in, at, or to a position down from; lower than; below [shoes under the bed, under a blazing sun] 2. beneath the surface of [under water] 3.… …   English World dictionary

  • under — (prep., adv.) O.E. under, from P.Gmc. *under (Cf. O.Fris. under, Du. onder, O.H.G. untar, Ger. unter, O.N. undir, Goth. undar), from PIE *ndhero lower (Cf. Skt. adhah below; Avestan athara lower; …   Etymology dictionary

  • Under — Série Logo de la série Scénario Christophe Bec Dessin …   Wikipédia en Français

  • under — *under germ., Adverb, Präposition: nhd. unter, zwischen; ne. under, between; Rekontruktionsbasis: got., an., ae., afries., anfrk., as., ahd.; Etymologie …   Germanisches Wörterbuch

  • Under — Un der, adv. In a lower, subject, or subordinate condition; in subjection; used chiefly in a few idiomatic phrases; as, to bring under, to reduce to subjection; to subdue; to keep under, to keep in subjection; to control; to go under, to be… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Under — Un der, a. Lower in position, intensity, rank, or degree; subject; subordinate; generally in composition with a noun, and written with or without the hyphen; as, an undercurrent; undertone; underdose; under garment; underofficer; undersheriff.… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • under — {{hw}}{{under}}{{/hw}}(sempre seguito da un num. card.) A s. m.  e f.  spec. al pl. Atleta al disotto di una data età: gli under 21. B agg. ; anche s. f. Squadra formata di atleti al disotto di una data età: la nazionale under 21; l under 21 ha… …   Enciclopedia di italiano

  • under- — [ʌndə US dər] prefix 1.) less of an action or quality than is correct, needed, or desired ▪ underdevelopment ▪ undercooked cabbage 2.) going under something ▪ an underpass (=a road or path that goes under another road) 3.) inside or beneath other …   Dictionary of contemporary English

  • under- — [ʌndə US dər] prefix 1.) less of an action or quality than is correct, needed, or desired ▪ underdevelopment ▪ undercooked cabbage 2.) going under something ▪ an underpass (=a road or path that goes under another road) 3.) inside or beneath other …   Dictionary of contemporary English

  • under- — [ ʌndər ] prefix 1. ) not enough: used with many nouns, verbs, and adjectives: under exposed under nourished 2. ) below: used with many nouns: underpass underwater underfloor heating 3. ) less powerful or important: used with some nouns: an under …   Usage of the words and phrases in modern English

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